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    En naviguant sur Internet : Le portrait du Maroc dressé par la CIA

    Par L'Economiste | Edition N°:227 Le 25/04/1996 | Partager

    Sur le Net, le portrait du Maroc tel que dressé par la CIA pour le World Fact Book. A noter les gros plans sur les conflits, l'environnement, le Parlement, les finances et les télécommunications.

    Geography
    Location: Northern Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, between Algeria and Western Sahara
    Map references: Africa
    Area:
    Total area
    : 446,550 sq km
    land area: 446,300 sq km
    comparative area: slightly larger than California
    Land boundaries: total 2,002 km, Algeria 1,559 km, Western Sahara 443 km
    Coastline: 1,835 km
    Maritime claims:
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    territorial sea: 12 nm

    International disputes: claims and administers Western Sahara, but sovereignty is unresolved; the UN is attempting to hold a referendum; the UN-administered cease-fire has been currently in effect since September 1991; Spain controls five places of sovereignty (plazas de soberania) on and off the coast of Morocco - the coastal enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla which Morocco contests as well as the islands of Penon de Alhucemas, Penon de Velez de la Gomera, and Islas Chafarinas
    Climate: Mediterranean, becoming more extreme in the interior
    Terrain: northern coast and interior are mountainous with large areas of bordering plateaux, intermontane valleys, and rich coastal plains.
    Natural resources: phosphates, iron ore, manganese, lead, zinc, fish, salt
    Land use:
    arable land: 18%
    permanent crops: 1%
    meadows and pastures: 28%
    forest and woodland: 12%
    other: 41%
    Irrigated land: 12,650 sq km (1989 est.)
    Environment:
    current issues: land degradation/desertification (soil erosion resulting from farming of marginal areas, overgrazing, destruction of vegetation); water supplies contaminated by raw sewage; siltation of reservoirs; oil pollution of coastal waters
    natural hazards: northern mountains geologically unstable and subject to earthquakes; periodic droughts
    international agreements: party to - Endangered Species, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection.
    Note: strategic location along Strait of Gibraltar

    People
    Population: 29,168,848 (July 1995 est.)
    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 38% (female 5,486,176; male 5,659,410)
    15-64 years: 58% (female 8,456,525; male 8,327,560)
    65 years and over: 4% (female 641,236; male 597,941) (July 1995 est.)
    Population growth rate: 2,09% (1995 est.)
    Birth rate: 27.93 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)
    Death rate: 5.97 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)
    Net migration rate: -1,08 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)
    Infant mortality rate: 45.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)
    Live expectancy at birth:
    total population: 68.98 years
    male: 67.03 years
    female: 71.02 years (1995 est.)
    Total fertility rate: 3.69 children born/woman (1995 est.)
    Nationality:
    noun: Moroccan(s)
    adjective: Moroccan
    Ethnic divisions: Arab-Berber 99,1%, other 0,7%, Jewish 0,2%
    Religions: Muslim 98,7%, Christian 1,1%, Jewish 0,2%
    Languages: Arabic (official), Berber dialects, French often the language of business, government and diplomacy
    Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
    total population: 50%
    male: 61%
    female: 38%
    Labor force: 7,4 million
    by occupation: agriculture 50%, services 26%, industry 15%, other 9% (1985)

    Government
    Names:
    conventional long form: Kingdom of Morocco
    conventional short form: Morocco
    local long form: Al Mamlakah al Maghribiyah
    local short form: Al Maghrib
    Digraph: MO
    Type: constitutional monarchy
    Capital: Rabat
    Administrative divisions: 36 provinces and 5 wilayas; Agadir, Al Hoceima, Assa-Zag, Azilal, Beni Mellal, Ben Slimane, Boulemane, Casablanca, Chaouen, El Jadida, El Kelaa des Sraghna, Er Rachidia, Essaouira, Es Smara, Fes, Figuig, Guelmim, Ifrane, Kenitra, Khemisset, Khenifra, Khouribga, Laayoune, Larache, Marrakech, Meknes, Nador, Oarzazate, Oujda, Rabat-Sale, Safi, Settat, Sidi Kacem, Tanger, Tan-Tan, Taounate, Taroudannt, Tata, Taza, Tetouan, Tiznit
    Independence: 2 March 1956 (from France)
    Ntional holiday: National Day, 3 March (1961) (anniversary of King Hassan II's accession to the throne)
    Constitution: 10 March 1972, revised 4 September 1992
    Legal system: based on Islamic law and French and Spanish civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Chamber of Supreme Court
    Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: King Hassan II (since 3 March 1961)
    head of government: Prime Minister Abdellatif Filali (since 29 May 1994)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the King.
    Legislative branch: unicameral
    Chamber of Representatives (Majlis Nawab): two-thirds elected by direct, universal suffrage and one-third by an electoral college of government, professional, and labor representatives; direct, popular elections last held 15 June 1993 (next to be held NA 1999); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats (333 total, 222 directly elected) USFP 48, IP 43, MP 33, RNI 28, UC 27, PND 14, MNP 14, PPS 6, PDI 3, SAP 2, PA 2, OADP 2; indirect, special interest elections last held 17 September 1993 (next to be held NA 1999); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (333 total, 111 indirectly elected) UC 27, MP 18, RNI 13, MNP 11, PND 10, IP 7, Party of Shura and Istiqlal 6, USFP 4, PPS 4, CDT 4, UTM 3, UGTM 2, SAP 2
    Judicial branch: Supreme Court
    Political parties and leaders:
    opposition: Socialist Union of Popular Forces (USFP), Mohammad al-Yazghi; Istiqlal Party (IP), M'Hamed Boucetta; Party of Progress and Socialism (PPS), Ali Yata; Organization of Democratic and Popular Action (OADP), leader NA
    pro-gouvernment: Constitutional Union (UC), Maati Bouabid; Popular Movement (MP), Mohamed Laenser; National Democratic Party (PND), Mohamed Arsalane El-Jadidi; National Popular Movement (MNP), Mahjoubi Ahardane
    independents: National Rally of Independents (RNI), Ahmed OSMAN; Democracy and Istiqlal Party (PDI), leader NA; Action Party (PA), Abdullah Senhaji; Non-Obedience Candidates (SAP), leader NA
    Labor unions and community organizations (indirect elections only): Democratic Confederation of Labor (CDT), Nabir Amaoui; General Union of Moroccan Workers (UGTM), Abderrazzak Afilal; Moroccan Union of Workers (UTM), leader NA; Party of Shura and Istiqlal, leader NA
    Member of: ABEDA, ACCT (associate), AFDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, CCC, EBRD, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    Diplomatic representation in US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Mohamed Benaissa
    Chancery: 1601 21 st Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
    telephone: [1] (202) 462-7979 through 7982
    Fax: [1] (202) 265-0161
    consulate(s) general: New York
    US diplomatic representation:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Marc C. Ginsberg
    embassy: 2 Avenue de Marrakech, Rabat
    mailing address: PSC 74, Box 003, APO AE 09718
    telephone: [212] (7) 76 22 65
    Fax: [212] (7) 76 56 61
    consulate(s) general: Casablanca
    Flag: red with a green pentacle (five-pointed, linear star) known as Solomon's seal in the center of the flag; green is the traditional color of Islam

    Economy
    Overview: Morocco faces the typical problems of developing countries - restraining government spending, reducing contraints on private activity and foreign trade, and keeping inflation within bounds. Since the early 1980s the government has pursued an economic program toward these objectives with the support of the IMF, the Worl Bank, and the Paris Club of creditors. The economy has substantial assets to draw on: the world's largest phosphate reserves, diverse agricultural and fishing resources, a sizable tourist industry, a growing manufacturing sector, and remittances from Moroccans working abroad. A severe drought in 1992-93 depressed economic activity and held down exports. Real GDP contracted by 4,4% in 1992 and 1,1% in 1993. Despite these setbacks, initiatives to relax capital controls, strengthen the banking sector, and privatize state enterprises went forward in 1993-94. Favorable rainfall in 1994 boosted agricultural production by 40%. Servicing the large debt, high unemployment, and vulnerability to external economic forces remain long-term problems for Morocco.
    National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $87,5 billion (1994 est.)
    National product real growth rate: 8% (1994 est.)
    National product per capita $3,060 (1994 est.)
    Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5,4% (1994)
    Unemployment rate: 16% (1994 est.)

    Budget:
    revenues: $8,1 billion
    expenditures: $8,9 billion (1994 est.)
    Exports: $4,1 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
    commodities: food and beverages 30%, semiprocessed goods 23%, consumer goods 21%, phosphates 17%
    partners: EU 70%, Japan 5%, US 4%, LIbya 3%, India 2% (1993)
    Imports: $7,5 billion (c.i.f., 1994 est.)
    commodites: capital goods 24%, semiprocessed goods 22%, raw materials 16%, fuel and lubricants 16%, food and beverages 13%, consumer goods 9%
    partners: EC 59%, US 8%, Saudi Arabia 5%, UAE 3%, Russia 2% (1993)
    External debt: $20,5 billion (1994 est.)
    Industrial production: growth rate 0,1% accounts for 28% of GDP
    Electricity:
    capacity: 2,620,000 kW
    production: 9,9 billion kWh
    consumption per capita: 361 kWh (1993)
    Industries: phosphate rock mining and processing, food processing, leather goods, textiles, construction, tourism
    Agriculture: accounts for 15% of GDP, 50% of employment, and 30% of export value; not self-sufficient in food; cereal farming and livestock raising predominate: barley, wheat, citrus, fruit, wine, vegetables, olives

    Illicit drugs: illicit producer of hashish; trafficking on the increase for both domestic and international drug markets; shipments of hashish mostly directed to Western Europe, transit point for cocaine from South America destined for Western Europe.
    Economic aid
    recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.3 billion: US commitments, including Ex-Im (1992), $123,6 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $7,5 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $4,8 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $2,5 billion
    note: $2,8 billion debt canceled by Saudi Arabia (1991); IMF standby agreement worth $13 million; World Bank, $450 million (1991)
    Currency: 1 Moroccan Dirham (DH) = 100 centimes
    Exchange rates: Moroccan Dirhams (DH) per US$1 - 2.892 (January 1995), 9.203 (1994), 9.299 (1993), 8.538 (1992), 8.707 (1991), 8.242 (1990)
    Fiscal year: calendar year

    Transportation
    Railroads:
    total: 1,893 km
    standard gauge: 1,893 km 1.435-m gauge (974 km electrified; 246 km double track)
    Highways:
    total: 59.474 km
    paved: 29,440 km
    unpaved: gravel, crushed stone, improved earth, unimproved earth 30.034 km
    Pipelines: crude oil 362 km; petroleum products (abandoned) 491 km; natural gas 241 km
    Ports: Agadir, Al Jadida, Casablanca, El Jorf Lasfar, Kenitra, Mohammedia, Nador, Rabat, Safi, Tanger; also Spanish-controlled Ceuta and Melilla.
    Merchant marine:
    total: 38 ships (1.000 GRT or over) totaling 183,951 GRT/273,057 DWT
    ships by type: cargo 6, chemical tanker 9, container 2, oil tanker 4, refrigerated cargo 10, roll-on/roll-off cargo 6, short-sea passenger 1
    Airports:
    total: 74
    with paved runways over 3,047 m: 11
    with paved runways 2,438 to 2,047 m: 4
    with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
    with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 3
    with paved runways under 914 m: 13
    with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
    with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 10
    with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 24

    Communications
    Telephone system: 280,000 telephones; 10.5 telephones/1,000 persons
    lcoal: NA
    intercity: good system composed of wire lines, cables, and microwave radio relay links; principal centers are Casablanca and Rabat; secondary centers are Fes, Marrakech, Oujda, Tangier, and Tetouan
    international: 5 submarine cables; 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Arabsat earth station; microwave radio relay to Gibraltar, Spain, and Western Sahara; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Algeria, microwave radio relay network linking Syria, Jordan, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco
    Radio:
    broadcast stations: AM 20, FM 7, shortwave 0
    radios: NA
    Television
    broadcast stations: 26 (repeaters 26)
    televisions: NA

    Defense Forces
    Branches: Royal Moroccan Army, Royal Moroccan Navy, Royal Moroccan Air Force, Royal Gendarmerie, Auxiliary Forces
    Manpower availability: males age 15-49 7,307,076; males fit for military service 4,637,453; males reach military age (18) annually 323,921 (1995 est.)
    Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $ 1,3 billion, 3,8% of GDP (1994)

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